“Lack of carbon dioxide discharge amount or higher amount of oxygenation at the membrane of alveoli is known as impaired gas exchange disease.”
In this method of oxygenation, oxygen is sent towards all cells of the body to increase and manage the body capability. And diffusion is a process in which oxygen and gas named as Carbon dioxide are conveyed between alveoli of the respiratory system and pulmonary capillaries. Everything will usually work until both these process is at balance state, but an imbalance in either diffusion and oxygenation results in a disease named as impaired gas exchange. Such ailments are mainly caused by oxygen congregation lower amount in the respiratory system, physical parameters related to the body, and metabolic rate increment in many cases.
Most of the time, people who inhale cigarettes in large quantity, the lung are affected patients and mountaineers who spend their various time at high peaks and altitudes. Such individuals are at high risk for impaired gas exchange, and they can suffer from attacks related to asthma, irregular respirations, restlessness, or noisy breathy sounds. The impaired gas exchange care plan will be a proper solution to tackle this disease, and it should be planned appropriately under medical team observation. No second option is there to handle it. The impaired gas exchange nursing diagnosis process in widely used medical professionals in present days. Let’s discuss the process of impaired gas exchange nursing diagnosis in detail.
Reasons behind Impaired Gas Exchange Disease:
Following are the leading reasons due to which many patients are suffering from this disease. Precautions must be taken to avoid the risk for impaired gas exchange.
- Infection (surgical or medicinal)
- HBP (High rate of Blood pressure)
- Higher rate Heartbeat
- Atelectasis (Missing of gas exchange)
- Deep anxiety or stress
- Severe Fever
- High altitudes
- Excess or Inflammation smoking
- Impaired Ventilation
- Disproportion in Acid-base level
- Heavy usage of drugs (solid/Liquid)
Impaired Gas Exchange Disease’s Symptoms and Signs:
An authentic and affective care plan to cure such diseases should be adopted to diagnose it. Impaired Gas Exchange can be detected by checking the following points:
- Abnormality in breathing
- Trembling of body parts and Numbness
- Speedy rate of respirations
- Blood secretions in arterial sections
- Extreme headache after sleep time
- Immobility feelings and Unconsciousness
- Mental disability or problem of understanding
- Inadvertent attitudes
- Loss of focus and Restlessness
- Visual disruption daily
- Irregularity and change in behavioural activities
- Post signs: Hypoxemia, cyanosis, Nasal gleaming, Hypoxia.
Goals and Outcomes of Impaired Gas Exchange Care Plan:
The process of impaired gas exchange nursing diagnosis is very vital in the field of medicine and the medical field. In this stated list of important goals and required outcomes of disease named as impaired Gas Exchange have been discussed:
- Affliction in respiratory should be avoided in the Lungs. Secretions and gases of lungs must be cleared and wipe out.
- Alert, active and awake state of patient needs to be established.
- Understanding of Oxygenation and necessary information about healing interventions must be known to the patient.
- Balanced and standard depth rate and respiratory patterns of patients should be maintained.
- Definite gas exchange value, confirmation, and regular checking of mental capabilities, respirations at 10-12 per minute, Blood gases and secretions must be in normal conditions and parameters.
Impaired Gas Exchange Interventions:
Patients condition can be improved by following impaired gas exchange interventions, and these interventions can help to lessen the reactions of impaired gas exchange. Such side effects can be removed by the patient or medical bulk by escorting. Critical, required responses that are necessary for the treatment of impaired gas exchange disease are:
- At specific time intervals, standard depth rate and respiratory patterns of patients should be measured and noted down to feel the change.
- In COPD patients, Oxygen quantity and concentration must be controlled; otherwise, carbon monoxide will be increased rapidly i.e., hazardous.
- Method of slow and extended breathing should be taught to the patient. By performing such breaths, a high amount of oxygen can be generated.
- During inhale or breathing, if a patient is suffering from any difficulty, suction needs to be used to remove all extra gases and wastages on the daily routine level.
Nursing Care Plan for Impaired Gas Exchange:
Along with all mediations and care plan, the patient always needs some nurse or caretaker who can help him out and provide first aid at any critical emergency. So patient should be provided with a nurse that can keep an eye on all of his routine and activities. In short, the caretaker or nurse can help the patient in detecting the current situation of impaired gas exchange. The caretaker should check the following list:
- Unusual sounds in breathing and chest excursions should be checked carefully. These sounds are the result of alveoli crumble, by such perfusion, a disease named as hypoxemia can be determined.
- Check patients’ physiological parameters and conditions. If the patient is chubby or obesity, it will be problematic for him to breadth usually. Similarly, chest weight should be reasonable to maintain the patient’s respiratory system.
- A caretaker should keenly observe mental and communications abilities of patients. Otherwise, the impaired gas exchange will be the outcome of patients’ response like a dilemma, fatigue, depression anxiety, other visual disturbance, or brain damages.
- Caretaker or nurse should check the BP (Blood Pressure) of the patient at specific intervals and note down them to examine the change in behaviour. High risk of impaired gas exchange will be there in contrast, if BP.
- Examine the standard depth rate and respiratory patterns of the patient. The gas exchange will be impaired if any rapid change in the respiratory system’s data field came across.
- To examine the daily situation, X-ray chest reports related to patients should be checked.
- Nail colour of defected person should be examined. If they turned toward bluish shade, then the patient’s condition is getting worse.
Impaired Gas Exchange Interventions for Nurses:
In the provided list, the curative intervention that a nurse should care of, are explained such expected damages in impaired gas exchange can be easily controlled healthily. Duty of a caretaker or nurse is:
- Medicate the patient only with prescribed medicine. Always consult the physician before giving any casual tablet.
- Laying positions and angle of the patient on the bed should be noted on an hourly basis. The angle should be 45 degrees from the upper side, and the head side should be elevated to provide a normal breath.
- Keenly observe and note down the case history of patients daily.
- Set the position of patient as inclined in the forward side if he’s feeling any issue while taking a breath. In this position, lower shrinkage will be done by gastric pressure.
- In COPD patients, Oxygen quantity and concentration must be controlled; otherwise, apnea can be detected due to excess of carbon monoxide.
- Check the level of oxygen and its quantity after 1 to 2 hours critically and change the position of the patient. Otherwise, if the oxygen level goes down, the nurse should turn him at the back. In this way, the concentration of oxygen can be increased, and the patient will feel better.
- Draw a complete chart and write primary objectives and daily goals on it. Fill that chart daily to have a record of the patient’s health regularly.
- Ambulation is used to wipe out all wastages and extra gases from the lungs. After the doctor’s permission, the nurse should use this process so the respiratory system should be in normal working.
- Give oxygen to the patient using various techniques e.g., by using a cannula, artificial mask or tubing, etc. But ask physician first for this step.
- Ambulatory suffering patients should be given oxygen that can be provided by a portable apparatus too.
- Always motivate the patient to face the impaired gas exchange with courage. If the patient is under stress or anxiety, help him to calm down. Otherwise, any change in his physiology rate can tend him towards breathing instability or any severe attack. So the patient should be relaxed, and no tension should be given to him.