Pain is defined as “uncomfortable feeling due to an individual’s sensitive and emotional nature or some disturbance in potential tissues.”
Pain cannot be generally defined because it varies from patient to patient. Its intensity can be mild or severe, depending upon the patient’s situation. Acute pain duration suggested by doctors is less than six months. Pain for more than six months is considered chronic pain. Aged people can suffer from acute pain due to cognitive impairment or emotional deficiencies, while teenagers suffer from pain due to injury, illness, emotions, culture, or restlessness. While solving such issues, acute pain nursing care plans are the main focus of our subject. Acute pain nursing diagnosis will be a part of our discussion too.
Factors Associated to Acute Pain:
Some factors associated with acute pain nursing diagnosis are described below, so it would be easier for nurses to diagnose and assess the patient’s condition during treatment.
- Pain in the result of medical damages/surgeries
- Pain results from an uncomfortable environment, cultural stress
- Pain arising from emotional behaviors of close ones
- Agony urged during medical treatment, interventions and diagnosis process
- Physiological issues resulting in the pain
- Pain resulting from stress, anxiety or trauma
Signs and Symptoms of Acute Pain:
The following signs and symptoms can be used to assess the patient during an acute pain nursing care plan.
- Change in diet and health plan
- Sensitive skin and protective behavior
- Patients pain-related complain
- Extremist behaviors like crying, yelling, restlessness
- A physiological change like weakness, numbness or rigidity
- Ascetic practices and responses like nausea, BP alteration, etc.
- Self-distraction struggles like seeking activities, friends, etc.
- Anxiety, stress or hopelessness
- Confirmed presence of pain according to pain standards.
- Pretending protective behavior
- Struggles related to pain ignorance
- Family reporting about pain presence or behavioral changes
- Reports regarding pain characteristics like shooting, burning and aching, etc.
Goals and Outcomes of acute pain nursing care plan:
Specific goals assigned with acute pain nursing care plan and desired outcomes have been discussed in the following list:
- The patient will have to express his physical stability in good manners.
- The patient will be able to maintain all physiological standards like Blood Pressure, heartbeat, body temperature, respiration, and muscle relaxations, etc.
- The patient will able to handle stress, anxiety in a healthy manner.
- The patient will cope with mood swings, temper, and numbness.
- By comparing with the rating scale of 0-10, the patient should be able to describe the pain level. It must be less than 3 or 4.
- The patient will use techniques related to pharmacological and non-pharmaceutical.
Acute Pain Nursing Care Plan:
Assessments and proper acute pain nursing care plans play a vital role in effective designing strategies. If a specific approach is followed by nurses to assess the patient’s situation, it will help them in the treatment and elimination of acute pain among patients. Some important point has been shared below of acute pain nursing care plan.
- Assess all sign and symptoms explained above, associated with the pain. Some patients refuse to pain existence. Although they can be suffering from high BP, heartbeat, or respiratory issues during pain, unconsciousness and restlessness may also be a part of his daily routine. So all such circumstances should be observed by the nurse while examining.
- Assess the patient’s pain attributes like onset, duration, place, severity, and quality. Monitor that either pain is sharp, shooting, or burning. Either pain was sudden or increased gradually. Either pain was for a longer or shorter period. Also, assess the relieve factor during the patient’s acute pain.
- Nurses should examine that up to which extent cultural, environmental, and personal relations have been affecting the patient during pain. Most of the time, the inter-personal relationship between family and friends causes such illnesses due to misunderstanding, quarrels, etc. So such situations must be avoided during the treatment of pain.
- In some situations, patients suffer from light pain, so they don’t bother, but in some victims, the severity of pain is extended, and they want instant relief. So nurses should asses the relief related patient’s anticipation level during pain.
- Assess that either patient is comfortable or not, with different strategic techniques to cope with acute pain. This must be the critical point of every acute pain nursing diagnosis because many patients have been looking for medications and pharmaceutical treatment. In contrast, some of them prefer to go for non-medical treatment. So assessment of patient’s willingness is critical.
- Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a process in which the patient can control its pain relief level with an infusion pump. But limits should be appropriately prescribed to the patient. But before applying PCA, the nurse should assess that the patient must be anti-allergic to opioid analgesics. The sensorium of the patient should be clean. The patient should be free of any respiratory disease, psychiatric history, and abuse.
- If the patient is under PCA treatment, nurses should assess the patient’s pain level. If pain level is high, the dosage of infusion can be increased for relief. If the level is low, the patient should be guided appropriately towards their PCA use.
- Nurses should examine the patient’s responses toward pain handling and management techniques. A healthy discussion with the patient about their pain-related factors should be organized. Relief strategies should be plan according to the outcomes of that discussion, and implementation of these strategies is needed.
Nursing Interventions for Acute Pain:
Being a nurse, you should spend proper time with the patient for treatment. It’s not your headache to confirm that either the patients are suffering from real pain or not. You have to follow your plan for effective treatment. Following nursing interventions for acute pain should be noticed during the healing process.
- Extract the pain causes and try to eliminate them. Pain can be reduced if the origin is known. It will decrease the analgesia amount required by the patient. So such early nursing interventions for pain should be considered.
- Pain reports related to the patient’s critical situation should be acknowledged as soon as possible. Because sometimes, fear and stress can relieve such acute pain, and if they reported at the right time, there would be more chances to reduce the pain severity. So such precautions should be monitored.
- After locating the causes, the nurse should avoid those environments and incidents due to which the patients can suffer from pain. All such scenarios should step back, which can cause harm to the patient.
- The patient should have proper sleep and relaxation time. During nursing interventions for pain guide, nurses are taught that how you can console the patient in stress, anxiety. The patient feels calm, stress-free, and relaxes. As a result, their sleep time can be increased healthily. So such interventions must be followed.
- Massage pain relief method also helps to reduce acute pain. Tissue edema can be minimized through it, and it also helps in endorphin levels increments. But a professional massager is needed during this method.
- Pain reflexes can reduce by using heat. Inflammation, muscle pain can be treated by using raw material. So hot and cold stuff can help in some cases.
- Rushed towards the doctor if nursing interventions for acute pain fails or unsuccessful.
The above interventions are only observed during cases but not sufficient for everyone. So always consult with your doctor/physician first for acute pain diagnosis.